It has been invoked four times by Turkey: in 2003 because of the war in Iraq, in June 2012 after the bombing of a Turkish military aircraft by Syria, in October 2012 after the Syrian attacks on Turkey and its counter-attacks, and in February 2020, amid rising tensions as part of the north-western Syrian offensive.   However, political tensions have weighed on the annual coordination of the allocation of flight quotas within the Open Ski Consultative Commission (OSCC) and have sometimes prevented an agreement. Due to the Russian-Georgian territorial conflict, no observation flights were possible in 2018. A Greek-Turkish dispute over Cyprus` accession to the treaty has repeatedly called into question the consensual adoption of the OSCC agenda since it came into force. In early 2016, Ankara refused a Russian observation flight in Turkey`s border region with Syria. In 2013 and September 2018, the United States has long delayed the certification of Russian digital cameras. In September 2019, Russia rejected a segment of a U.S.-Canadian observational flight project over an area of central Siberia where the major Tsentr exercise took place. In addition, since 2017, the United States has been restricting Russian flights over Alaska and the Pacific Islands. Washington has responded to Russia`s limitation of the route over Kaliningrad by limiting Russian flights over and from Alaska to the point that Russian planes can no longer fly over Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The situation has not yet deteriorated. There is therefore no apparent reason to withdraw from the treaty.
Rather, it appears to be a fundamental decision by the Trump administration, which is once again expressing its growing distrust of multilateral agreements. Last week, on New Year`s Day, Wednesday, India and Pakistan successfully concluded the 29th consecutive annual exchange of lists of sensitive nuclear facilities as part of a non-aggression agreement between them. Under the Convention on the Prohibition of Attack on Nuclear Facilities, lists are considered by each country to be outside the borders for attacks in conflict. India has repeatedly proposed extending the agreement to non-civilian and economic objectives, but Pakistan has consistently rejected these proposals.